Additions Used to Increase the Toxicity of Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) Against Three Rodent Species Under Laboratory Conditions


Abstract

This project was aimed to use three concentrations (1,2 and 3%) of neem seed extracts adding to 4% Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), the previously recommended dose (Saudi, 2012) in order to improve PPD against three rodent species: white billed rat,  Rattus rattus frugivorus, nile grass rat,  Arvicanthis niloticus and  house mice, Mus musculus under  laboratory conditions.

The results showed a high rate of consumption of the bait when using with the low concentrations of neem seed extract compared with the lowest one. While the %4 PPD without additions was the first in bait consumption. Rodent females increased high rate of baits as compared with males. The consumption were (53.40 and 39.35), (80.90 and 57.15), (32.70 and 21.55 g/animal) for females and males of white billed rat,  R. r. frugivorus, nile grass rat,  Arvicanthis niloticusand  house mice, Mus musculus respectively. Mean of consumed baits were: 69.03, 46.37 and 27.13 g/animal nile grass rat,  Arvicanthis niloticus, white billed rat,  R. r. frugivorus, and  house mice, Mus musculus respectively.

The results also indicated that the period of stay alive of tasted animals increases gradually with an increasing of neem seed extract (carried on crushed maize) compared to using also control bait. Females were most durable and lasted the longest life span of males for all rodent species tested. These periods were (9.0 and 14.35), (9.50 and 15.10), (7.75 and 13.05 day) for white billed rat, R. r. frugivorus, nile grass rat,  A. niloticus and  house mice, M. musculus, respectively. Also the nile grass rat, A. niloticus showed a longer period of survival than the other two species( i.e. the norway rat, R. norvegicus and the house mouse, M. musculus). On the other hand, the reduction in weight in the males of the three tasted rodent species, was less than the reduction in weight of females were using neem seed extract concentrations carried on crushed maize.

Keywords: Paraphenylenediamine, rattus rattus frugivorus, arvicanthis niloticus, mus musculus

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