The solids are widely used in the refining industry. They are involved in most processes of heterogeneous catalysis that has greatly revolutionized the refining processes during the half past century. It has contributed to the rapid development of processes such as: catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming and isomerization. As we know, the heterogeneous catalysis or contact catalysis aims to carry out a transformation of gaseous or liquid reactants by using a solid catalyst. The chemical processing occurs at the interface solid-fluid due to the absorption of reactants in the solid surface; this adsorption involves specific sites that are capable of contracting with the reactants of chemical bonds more or less strong. The adsorbed and formed sorts lead to the desired reaction if the catalyst is well selected, which is Sabatier principle. Thus, the establishment of superficial atoms and ions plays an important role. As a whole, the industrial solid catalyst are the heart of refining process and determine their future as well. More and more, the catalytic processes develop at the expense of thermal processes, and the discovery of new catalysts determines the development of new processes.
The needs of refinery are evolving constantly. More and more oil is processed and transformed into noble products such as: fuels, bases for petro chemistry, and lubricants. The industry of transports plays a leading role in this development, made possible by the steady progress of processes and catalysts as well.
The development of specifications of fuels and heavy fuel is becoming increasing severe as far as environment is concerned.
It is in this context that this work has been conducted. Starting from local materials, mainly “bentonite”, solid catalysts have been developed. They are analyzed by physico-chemical methods. These catalysts are used to develop the heavy fractions and the residues of oil by the catalytic processes. This is by obtaining clean petrol (fuel) that respect the environment, and petroleum fractions that are considered as important raw materials for petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic synthesis.
Keywords: bentonite, catalysts, petroleum loads, octane number(10.14266/ajoct14-3)