This paper talks about the sludge characteristics and conventional methods for remediation of oil from sludge and also the main part of the study is focused on the previous literatures to describe the most recent researches in oily sludge remediation process. Conventional characterization parameters can be grouped in physical, chemical and biological parameters:
- Physical parameters give general information on sludge process ability and hand ability;
- Chemical parameters are relevant to the presence of nutrients and toxic/dangerous compounds, so they become necessary in the case of utilization in agriculture;
- Biological parameters give information on microbial activity and organic matter/ pathogens presence, thus allowing the safety of use to be evaluated.
Keywords: Remediation; sludge; treatment; degradation.
- ISWA’s Working Group on Sewage & Waterworks Sludge, Sludge Treatment and Disposal , European Environment Agency, No.7,1997.
- K.M. Bansal, Sugiarto, Exploration and Production Operations – Waste Management a Comparative Overview: US and Indonesia Cases, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc, 1997.
- B.L. Kellems, R.W. Slocum, M.C. Kavanaugh,Alternatives for Closure of Solid Oily Waste Sites on the North Slope of Alaska, , Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc,1991.
- W.J. Hahn,R.C. Loehr, , Biological Treatment of Petroleum Oily Sludges , Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc,1992.
- S.J. McMillen and N.R. Gray, Biotreatment of Exploration and Production Wastes, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc, 1994.
- J.Liang, S.Komarov, N.Hayashi, E.Kasai, Improvement in sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol by combined use of Fenton-like reagents Improvement in sonochemical degradation of 4 chlorophenol by combined use of Fenton-like reagents, pp201–20,2007.
- R.Makkar, S,Cameotra ,Production of biosurfactant at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions by a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol.20, pp .48–52, 1998.
- M.Pacwa-Płociniczak,G.A.Płaza,Z.Piotrow,Seget,S.S.Cameotra,Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants,Vol. 12, pp.633-654,2011.
- B. K.Tulevaa, G. R. Ivanovb , N. E. Christovaa, Biosurfactant Production by a New Pseudomonas putida Strain, pp.356-360 ,2002.
- H. Rashedi, E. Jamshidi, M. MazaheriAssadi ,B. Bonakdarpour,Isolation and production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Iranian southern wells oil, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 121-127,2005.
- J. D. DESAI, I. M. BANAT, “Microbial Production of Surfactants and Their Commercial Potential” American Society for Microbiology, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 47–64, 1997.
- S.Maneerat, K.Phetrong,Isolation of biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria and characteristics of selected biosurfactant,Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, Vol.2,No.3, pp.781-791, 2007.
- R. Jain, K.Mody, A. Mishra, B.Jha,Isolation and structural characterization of biosurfactant produced by an alkaliphilic bacterium Cronobactersakazakii isolated from oil contaminatedwastewater, Carbohydrate Polymers ,Vol.87 , pp.2320– 2326,2012.
- O. Ward, A. Singh, J. V. Hamme, Accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon waste.JIndMicrobiolBiotechnol, Vol.30, pp. 260–270, 2003.
- Y.P.Sun, Xiao-qin Li, J. Cao, Wei-xian Zhang, H. P, Wang, Characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.120, pp.47–56, 2006.