19a Practical Method to Determine the Temperature of a Solar Thermal Energy Storage Tank


Solar energy (renewable energy) can play a key role in supplying the increasing energy need of humans and decrease air pollution. The production of hot water in houses for consumption is the most common use of solar energy. In the present study, a solar water heater system (SWHS) is studied using solar parabolic collector and heat exchanger. The aim of this study was to compare the theoretical and experimental temperature of a thermal energy storage tank (TEST). To achieve this goal, the temperatures of TEST were measured at constant time intervals, experimentally. Moreover, the temperatures of TEST were also estimated using the Euler integration method. The comparison of temperature values shows that the Euler method is the exact method to estimate the temperature of TEST. Also, the temperature variations of the water tank versus time show that the heat losses of the system is low, as well the heat exchanger transfer thermal energy to the water tank as well. Therefore, it can be said that the system is efficient and applicable to SWHS for building.

Keyword: Solar energy, thermal energy, Euler integral, solar parabolic collector, thermal energy storage tank




  • Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, Technical Support Unit Working Group III Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 2012.
  • Batidzirai, E. Lysen, S. V. Egmond, V. Sark, W. G. J. H. M., Potential for solar water heating in Zimbabwe, Renewable and sustainable Energy, 13,567–582, 2009.
  • A. Duffi, W. A. Backman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th edition, Wiley, Wisconsin Madison, 2006.
  • Luo, Z. Hu, X. Hong, W. He, Experimental study of the water heating performance of a novel tile shaped dual-function solar collector, Energy Procedia, 70, 87 – 94, 2015.
  • Wang, W. Yang, Q. Feng, X. Zhang, X. Zhao, Solar water heating: From theory, application, marketing and research, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 68–84, 2015.
  • E. W. Schumann, J. Franklin, Heat Transfer: A Liquid Flowing through a Porous Prism, 208, 405-416, 1929.
  • K. Kuhn, G. F. Von Fuchs, A. W. Warren, A. P. Zob, Developing and Upgrading of Solar System Thermal Energy Storage Simulation Models, Report of Boeing Computer Services Company to the U.S. Department of Energy, 1980.
  • Karaki, P. R. Armstrong, T. N. Bechtel, Evaluation of a Residential Solar Air Heating and Nocturnal Cooling System, Report COO-2868-3 from Colorado State University to the U.S. Department of Energy, 1977.
  • D. Balcomb, J. C. Hedstrom, R. D. McFarland, Simulation Analysis of Passive Solar Heated Buildings—Preliminary Results, Solar Energy, 19, 277-282, 1977.
  • Ohanessian, W. W. S. Charters, Thermal Simulation of a Passive Solar House Using a Trombe-Michel Wall Structure, Solar Energy, 20, 275-281, 1978.
  • A. Bankston, The Status and Potential of Central Solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage, An International Report, in Advances in Solar Energy, 4, 352, New York, 1988.
  • Sagade, Experimental investigation of effect of variation of mass flow rate on performance of parabolic dish water heater with non-coated receiver, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 6, 80-93, 2013.
  • Valan Arasu, S. Thambu Sornakumar, Performance charecteristics of the solar parabolic trough collector with hot water generation system, Thermal science, 10, 167-174, 2006.
  • Valan Arsu, S. Thambu Sornakumar, Theretical analysis and experimental verification of parabolic trough solar collector with hot water generation system, Thermal science, 11, 119-126, 2007.
  • Rosado Haua, M. A. Escalante, Efficiency of a parabolic trough collector as a water heater system in Yucata´n mexico, Renewable and sustainable energy, 3, 1-6 , 2011.
  • Mohamad, J. Orfi, H. Alansary Heat losses from parabolic trough solar collectors, International journal of energy research, 38, 20–28, 2014.
  • P. Incropera, D. P. Dewitt, Introduction to heat transfer, edited by L. Bergman, S. Lavine, 5th edition, Wiley, 2007.