19Use of Polysaccharide As Stabilizer in Preparation of Organic Nanodispersions


Abstract:

The production of lipophilic bioactive compounds’ nanoparticles, that recently have been received great attentions in researches, led to easy use of these systems in water based food and pharmaceutical formulations and considerable increase in their either chemical stabilities  or bioavailability. In preparation of these nanoparticles, which also known as nanodispersion systems, natural or synthetic surface active compounds are needed to growth inhibition of gained nanoparticles during process and their stabilizations. Proteins and polysaccharides are good candidate as natural surface active biopolymers. While polymers have been used as stabilizer, the use of polysaccharides was limited. Therefore, some polysaccharides which can be used as stabilizer and emulsifier in preparation of nanoparticles or micro/nan-oencapsulations   of   these organic lipid compounds such as pectin, Arabic gum, alginate, chitosan and natural or modified starches will be reviewed.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Nanoparticles, Nanodispersion, Emulsifiers and Stabilizers, Polysaccharides

References:

  • M. Khoshmanzar, B. Ganbarzade, H. Hamishehkar, Reza. R.Mokaram, “determin effectet factors on particle size, zeta potential and rheological properties of colloidal systems containing of  caseinate sodium _cappa Carrageenan”,  Researchb Institude of food Science and Technology, 4, 255-272, 2012.

  • D. Bakewell, Micro- and Nano-Transport of  Biomolecules, 2nd edition, Ventus, 2009.

  • Y. Yuan, Y. Gao, J. Zhao, L. Mao, “Characterization and   stability evaluation of â-carotene nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization under various emulsifying conditions”, Food Research International (Food Res. Int), 41(1),  61-68, 2008.               

  • T. Panagiotou, R. J. Fisher,”Producing micron-and nanosize formulations for functional foods applications”. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 3,  274-289, 2013.

  • A. Patel, Y. C. Hu, J. K.Tiwari., K. P. Velikov, “Synthesis   and characterisation of zein-curcumin colloidal particles”, Soft  Matter, 6, 6192-6199, 2010.

  • E. Dickinson,“ Hydrocolloids as emulsifiersand  and  emulsion stabilizers”, Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1473-1482, 2009.

  • D. Yu,  S.  Xiao, C. Tong, L. Chen and X. Liu, “Dialdehyde   starch nanoparticles: preparation and application in drug carrier”, Chinese Science Bulletin (Chin. Sci. Bull), 52, 2913-2918, 2007.

  • C.Chang, Z. C. Wang, C.Y.  Quan, H. Cheng, S. X.  Cheng,  X. Z. Zhang, “Fabrication of a novel pH-sensitiv glutaraldehyde cross-linked pectin nanogel for drug delivery”,  Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition (J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed),  18, 1591-1599, 2007.

  • R.K. Dutta, S. Sahu, “Development of diclofenac sodium   loaded magnetic nanocarriers of pectin interacted with chitosan for targeted and sustained drug delivery”. Colloids and Surfaces B:Biointerfaces (Colloids Surf), 97, 19-26, 2012.                                                       

  • I. J. Joye, V.A. Nelis, D. J.McClements, “ Gliadin- nanoparticles: Stabilization by post-production polysaccharide coating”, Food Hydrocolloids, 43,  236-242, 2015.

  • N. Anarjan, C. P. Tan, “Physico-chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions prepared with polysaccharides as stabilizing agents”, Food science and nutrition(Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr), 64(6), 744-748, 2013.

  • Chu BS, Ichikawa S, Kanafusa S and Nakajima M, “Preparation of proteinstabilized â-carotene nanodispersions by emulsification–evaporation method,” J Am Oil Chem Soc , 84:1053–1062, 2007.

  • Bouyer, E, Mekhloufi, G, Huang, N, Rosilio, V and Agnely, F. “ b-Lactoglobulin, gum arabic, and xanthan gum for emulsifying sweet almond oil: formulation and stabilization mechanisms of pharmaceutical emulsions”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 433, 77-87, 2013.

  • Harnsilawat, Pongsawatmanit, R., & McClements, D. J, “Stabilization of model beverage cloud emulsions using protein-polysaccharide electrostatic complexes formed at the oil-water interface,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(15), 5540-5547, 2006.

  • G.O.PhillipsP, A. Williams,“Handbook of  hydrocolloids”,  Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington, Chapter 9, 2000.

  • N. Anarjan, C. P. Tan, “Physico-chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions prepared with polysaccharides as stabilizing agents”, International Journal of food sciences and Nutrition (Int J Food Sci Nutr), No. 64(6), pp. 744–748, 2013.     

  • B. Ozturk, S. Argin, M. Ozilgen, D. McClements,  “Formation and Stabilization of Nanoemulsion-Based Vitamin E Delivery Systems using Natural Biopolymers: Whey Protein Isolate and Gum Arabic”, Food Chemistry (Food Chem), 2015.

  • A. S. O. Pedro, E. Cabral-Albuquerque, D. Ferreira,  B.Sarmento, “Chitosan: an option for development of essential oil delivery systems for oral cavity care”, Carbohydrate Polymers (Carbohydr. Polym), 76,  501-508, 2009.

  • K. Konecsni, N. H. Low,  M. T. Nickerson, “chitosan  tripolyphosphate submicron particles as the carrier of entrapped rutin”. Food Chemistry (Food Chem), 134, 1775-1779, 2012.

  • Zhang, C., Ping, Q., Zhang, H., & Shen, J. (2003). Preparation of Nalkyl- O-sulfate chitosan derivatives and micellar solubilization of taxol. Carbohydrate Polymers, 54, 137e141.

  • L. Zhang., S. L. Kosaraju, “Biopolymeric delivery system    [17] for controlled release of polyphenolic antioxidants” European Polymer Journal (Eur. Polym. J), 43, 2956-2966, 2007.

  • L.Y. Luo, B. Zhang, M. Whent, Y. Liangli, Q. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of zein/chitosan complex for encapsulation of á -tocopherol, and its in vitro controlled release study”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces (Colloids Surf), No. 85, 145–152, 2011.

  • B. Sarmento, A. Ribeiro, F. Veiga, P. Sampaio, R.  Neufeld, D. Ferreira, “Alginate/chitosan nanoparticles are effective for oral insulin delivery”, Pharmaceutical Research (Pharm. Res),  24, 2198-2206, 2007.

  • I. L.Andresen,O. Skipnes, O. Smidsrod, K. Ostgaard, P. Hemmer, “Some biological functions of matrix components in benthic algae in relation to their chemistry and the composition of seawater,” in ACS Symposium Series-American Chemical Society (USA), 1977.

  • O. Smidsrod, “Solution properties of alginate”,  Carbohydrate research,  13, 359-372, 1970.

  • R.C.Pinto., R. J. Neufeld.,  A. N. J. Ribeiro., F. Veiga, “Nanoencapsulation I. Methods for preparation of [26] drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles”, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine (Nanomed. Nanotechnol. Biol. Med),  2, 8-21, 2006.

  • M. George, T. E. Abraham, “Polyionic hydrocolloids for  the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: alginate and chitosan – a review”. Journal of Controlled Release (J. Controlled Release), 114, 1-14, 2006.

  • Strasdat. B, & Bunjes. H, “Incorporation of lipid nanoparticles into calcium alginate beads and characterization of the encapsulated particles by differential scanning calorimetry”, Food Hydrocolloids, 30, 567-575, 2013.

  •  X. Liu , X. Chen , Y. Li, W. Wang,  X. Peng, W. Zhu, “Preparation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 alginate/chitosan nanospheres for Candida rugosa lipase immobilization and utilization of layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the stability of immobilized lipase”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces(ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces), 4, 5169-5178, 2012.

  • P. Lertsutthiwong , K. Noomun , N. Jongaroonngamsang,  P. Rojsitthisak, U.  Nimmannit, “Preparation of alginate nanocapsules containing turmeric oil”, Carbohydrate Polymers, 74, 209-214, 2008.

  • M. George, T. E. Abraham, “pH sensitive alginate-guar gum hydrogel for the controlled delivery of protein drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 335, 123-129,2007.

  • M. George, T. E. Abraham, “Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: alginate and chitosan e a review”, Journal of Controlled Release, 114, 1-14, 2006.

  • Y. Li, D. J.  McClements, “Controlling lipid digestion by encapsulation of protein-stabilized lipid droplets within alginatechitosan complex coacervates”,  Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1025-1033, 2011.

  • M. A. Azevedo, A. I. Bourbon, A. A. Vicente, M. A. Cerqueira, “Alginate/chitosan nanoparticles for encapsulation and controlled release of vitamin B2”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules(Int. J. Biol. Macromol), 71, 141-146, 2014.

  • T. L. Barsby, A. M. Donald,  P. J. Frazier, “Starch: Advances in Structure and Function”, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2001.

  • A. K. Jain, R. K. Khar, F. J. Ahmed, P. V. Diwan,  “Effective insulin delivery using starch nanoparticles as a potential transnasal mucoadhesive carrier”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2008.

  • V. Geokmen, B. E. A. Mogol, R. B. Lumaga, V. Fogliano, Z. Kaplun, E. Shimoni, “Development of functional bread containing nanoencapsulated omega-3 fatty acids”, Journal of Food Engineering (J. Food Eng), 105,  585-591, 2011.

  • U. Lesmes, S. H. Cohen, Y. Shener, E. Shimoni, “Effects of long chain fatty acid unsaturation on the structure and controlled release properties of amylose complexes”, Food Hydrocolloids,  23,  667-675, 2009.

  • T. Itthisoponkul, J. R. Mitchell, A. J. Taylor, I. A.   Ferhat, “Inclusion complexes of tapioca starch with flavor compounds”. Carbohydrate Polymers(Carbohydr. Polym), 69, 106-115, 2007.

  • D. Yu, S. Xiao, C. Tong, L. Chen, X. Liu, “Dialdehyde   starch nanoparticles: preparation and application in drug carrier”, Chinese Science Bulletin (Chin. Sci. Bull), 52, 2913-2918, 2007.

  • R. Jain, P. Dandekar, B. Loretz, A. Melero, T. Stauner, G. Wenz, “Enhanced cellular delivery of idarubicin by surface modification of propyl starch nanoparticles employing pteroic acid conjugated polyvinyl alcohol”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Int. J. Pharm), 420, 147-155, 2011.

  • Z. H. Qi, A. Xu, “Starch-based ingredients for food   encapsulation”, Cereal Foods World, 44,  460-465, 1999.

  • W. Xu, W. Yang, Y. Yang,  “Electrospun starch acetate   nanofibers: development, properties, and potential application in drug delivery”, Biotechnology Progress (Biotechnol. Progr), 25, 1788-1795, 2009.

  • H. Pu, L. Chen, X. Li, F. Xie, L. Yu, L. Li, “An oral   colontargeting controlled release system based on resistant starch acetate: synthetization, characterization, and preparation of filmcoating pellets”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (J. Agric. Food. Chem), 59, 5738-5745, 2011.

  • J. Y. Kim, S. T. Lim, “ Complex formation between    amylomize dextrin and n- butanol by phase sepration”, Carbohydrate Polymers, 82, 264- 269, 2010.

  • R. Campardellia , R. Adamia, E. Reverchona,“Preparation  of stable aqueous nanodispersions of â-carotene by supercritical assisted injection in a liquid antisolvent”, Procedia Engineering (Procedia Eng), 42, 1493 – 1501, 2012.

  • S. Zhang,  K. Kawakami, “One-step preparation of  chitosan solid nanoparticles by electrospray deposition”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics(Int. J. Pharm), 397,  211-217, 2010.

  • J. R. Squire, “Dextran: Its properties and use in medicine”,  Blackwell Scientific Pub, 1955.

  • K. Kaewprapan, F. Baros, E.Marie, P. Inprakhon, A. Durand, “Macromolecular surfactants synthesized by lipasecatalyzed transesterification of dextran with vinyl decanoate”, Carbohydrate Polymers(Carbohydr. Polym), 88, 313-320, 2012.

  • K. E. Broaders, S. Grandhe, J. M. J. A. Frechet, “biocompatible oxidation-triggered carrier polymer with potential in therapeutics”, Journal of the American Chemical Society(JACS), 133, 756-758, 2011.

  • R. Cassano, S. Trombino, R. Muzzalupo, L. Tavano, N. Picci, “A novel dextran hydrogel linking trans-ferulic acid for the stabilization and transdermal delivery of vitamin E”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 72,  232–238, 2009.

  • J. Qi, P. Yao, F. He, C. Yu, C. Huang, “Nanoparticles with dextran/chitosan shell and BSA/chitosan core – doxorubicin loading and delivery”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Int. J. Pharm), 393, 177-185, 2010.