In this research for the first time, an electrochemical sensor based on the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) onto a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was fabricated and applied for the voltammetric determination of venlafaxine (VF). The polypyrrole (PPy) film was prepared by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Pyrrole in the presence of two supporting electrolyte (KCl and p-toluene sulphonic acid, PTSA) with and without a template molecule VF on a PGE was deposited. The performance of the MIP and non- imprinted polymer (NIP) films was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Current measurements were performed in the potential range between 0.5 and 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the MIP were investigated and optimized. In a linear concentration range, the detection limit of VF was found as 2.8×10-8 μM. The MIP film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward VF. The results of this study showed that the electrode modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as a sensor able to measure the drug venlafaxine be used in cases of natural and pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: Molecularly imprinted polymer, Polypyrrole, Pencil graphite electrode, Electropolymerization, Differential pulse voltammetry, Venlafaxine
B. A. Adergani, N. Adib, H. Hajimehdipour, Set up and validation of liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector in order to determine the amount of active ingredient and content uniformity of imipramine in 10 and 50 mg tablets, Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 17 (3), 57-64, 2009.
M. kazazi, M. R. Vaezi, A. Kazemzadeh, Synthesis, characterization and cyclability of sulfur-polypyrrole composite as a cathode material for lithium secondary batteries, Journal of Advanced Materials and Technologies, 2(3), 79-85, 2013.
A. Rostami, H. Isazadeh, H. Nikofard, Influence of electropolymerization conditions on the electrochemical behaviour and film Morphology of polypyrrole, Journal of Polymer Science and Technology, 10 (3), 97-106, 1997.
E. Y. Z. Frag, M. A. Zayed, M. M. Omar, S. E. A. Elashery, G. G. Mohamed, Potentiometric determination of chlorpromazine HCl using carbon paste electrode in pure and pharmaceutical preparations, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7(1), 650-662, 2012.
E. M. Clement, J. Odontiadis, M. Franklin, Simultaneous measurement of venlafaxine and its major metabolite, oxydesmethylvenlafaxine, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection and utilisation of solid-phase extraction, Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 705(2), 303-308, 1998.
S. Rudaz, C. Stella, A. E. Balant-Gorgia, S. Fanali, J. L. Veuthey, Simultaneous stereoselective analysis of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine enantiomers in clinical samples by capillary electrophoresis using charged cyclodextrins, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 23(1), 107-115, 2000.
J. P. Lamas, C. Salgado-Petinal, C. Garcia-Jares, M. Llompart, R. Cela, M. Gomez, Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in environmental water, Journal of Chromatography A, 1046(1-2), 241-247, 2004.
C. Salgado-Petinal, J. P. Lamas, C. Garcia-Jares, M. Llompart, R. Cela, Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 382(6), 1351-1359, 2005.
H. Juan, Z. Zhiling, L. Huande, Simultaneous determination of fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/ESI), Journal of Chromatography B, 820(1), 33-39, 2005.
Z. Wei, X. Bing-Ren, W. Cai-Yun, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of venlafaxine in human plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study, Biomedical Chromatography, 21(3), 266-272, 2007.
G. R. Shah, B. T. Thaker, K. R. Surati, M. H. Parabia, Simultaneous determination of venlafaxine and its main active metabolite O-desmethyl venlafaxine in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS, Analytical Sciences, 25(10), 1207-1210, 2009.
E. M. Suenaga, D. R. Ifa, A. C. Cruz, R. Pereira, E. Abib, M. Tominga, C. R. Nakaie, Automated determination of venlafaxine in human plasma by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS. Application to a bioequivalence study, Journal of Separation Science, 32(4), 637-643, 2009.
S. Shahnawaz, Z. Siddiqui, Q. Hoda, Sensitive spectrofluorimetric method of analysis for venlafaxine in spiked rat plasma and formulations, Journal of Fluorescence, 20(4), 821-825, 2010.
J. Kaur, K. K. Srinivasan, A. Joseph, A. Gupta, Y. Singh, K. S. Srinivas, G. Jain, Development and validation of stability indicating method for the quantitative determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in extended release formulation using high performance liquid chromatography, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 2(1), 22-26, 2010.
J. L. F. C. Lima, D. V. Loo, C. Delerue-Matos, A. S. Roque da Silva, Electrochemical behaviour of venlafaxine and its determination in pharmaceutical products using square wave voltammetry, Il Farmaco, 54(3), 145-148, 1999.
S. Morais, C. P. M. C. A. Ryckaert, C. Delerue-Matos, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of venlafaxine in urine with a mercury film microelectrode, Analytical Letters, 36(11), 2515-2526, 2003.
N. Puanglek, A. Sittattraku, W. Lerdwijitjarud, Enhancement of electrical conductivity of polypyrrole and Its derivative, Science Journal Ubon Ratchathani University, 1(1), 35-42, 2010.
D. D. Ateh, H. A. Navsaria, P. Vadgama, Polypyrrole-based conducting polymers and interactions with biological tissues, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 3(11), 741-752, 2006.
A. Parsa, S. Ab Ghani, Aqueous electrosyntheses of homo and copolymers of pyrrole and aniline in a binary electrolyte system, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 156(6), 105-111, 2009.
K. Sreenivasa rao, J. Sunita, P. Prakash, B. U. Dattatraya, Development and evaluation of sustained release formulations of venlafaxine hydrochloride, International Journal of Research in Pharmacy, 2(5), 261-270, 2011.
S. Dermis, H. Y. Cay, Electrochemical behaviour of sertraline hydrochloride at a glassy carbon electrode and its determination in pharmaceutical products using osteryoung square wave voltammetry, Pharmazie, 65(3), 182-187, 2010.
K. K. Tadi, R. V. Motghare, V. Ganesh, Electrochemical detection of sulfanilamide using pencil graphite electrode based on molecular imprinting technology, Electroanalysis, 26(11), 2328-2336, 2014.